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Thyroid cancer (thyroid carcinoma) is the most common thyroid malignant tumor, about 1% of the whole body malignant tumor, including papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma and medullary carcinoma of the four kinds of pathological types. Papillary carcinoma with low malignancy and good prognosis was the most common. Except medullary carcinoma, most thyroid cancers originated from follicular epithelial cells. The morbidity is related to region, race and gender. There were more cases in females, with a ratio of 1 (2 ~ 4) for males and females. Onset can occur at any age, but is more common in young adults. The vast majority of thyroid cancers occur in the lateral thyroid lobes, often as a single tumor.
The cause of
Iodine and thyroid cancer
Iodine is an essential trace element for human body. Iodine deficiency leads to decreased synthesis of thyroid hormone and increased levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which stimulates hyperplasia and hypertrophy of thyroid follicles, goiter and thyroid hormone, and increases the incidence of thyroid cancer. There is no consensus at present. A high iodine diet may increase the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer.
Radiation and thyroid cancer
X-ray irradiation of the thyroid gland of experimental rats can promote the occurrence of thyroid cancer, nuclear deformation, and greatly reduce the synthesis of thyroxine, leading to carcinogenesis. On the other hand, the thyroid gland is damaged and cannot produce endocrine hormone, and the massive secretion of TSH caused by this can also promote thyroid cell carcinogenesis.
3. Chronic stimulation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid cancer
Increased serum TSH level, induction of nodular goiter, mutagen and TSH stimulation can induce thyroid follicular carcinoma, and clinical studies have shown that TSH suppression therapy in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer surgery play an important role in the process, but if TSH stimulation is the cause of thyroid carcinoma remains to be proved.
The role of sex hormones in thyroid cancer
Because in well differentiated thyroid cancer patients, more women than men are also obvious, and sex hormones and thyroid cancer, the relationship between some study of sex hormone receptors in thyroid carcinoma tissue, and found that sex hormone receptors exist in the thyroid tissue: estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), and thyroid cancer tissues ER, but sex hormone influence on thyroid cancer has not been determined.
Goitrogenic material and thyroid cancer
Whoever can interfere with the normal thyroid hormone synthesis, and produce thyroid substance, became a goiter raw material, including cassava, turnip, cabbage, thiourea pyrimidine, sodium thiocyanate, the amino acid, bute, potassium chlorate, cobalt, lithium salt and other food and drugs, as well as hydrocarbon, calcium sulfur and fluorine of too much drinking water.
6. Other thyroid diseases and thyroid cancer
A small number of patients with benign thyroid diseases such as nodular goiter, hyperthyroidism, and hyperthyroidism are associated with thyroid cancer. Thyroid adenomas can also become cancerous.
7. Familial factors and thyroid cancer
About 5% ~ 10% of patients with medullary thyroid cancer have obvious family history and autosomal dominant inheritance. Two or more members of a family with papillary carcinoma may also be seen clinically.
Clinical manifestations of
In the early stage, there are no obvious symptoms and signs. Usually, small thyroid masses are found by thyroid palpation and neck ultrasound during physical examination.
The typical clinical manifestation is found in the thyroid mass, hard and fixed texture, uneven surface is the common manifestation of all types of cancer. Glands move less up and down when swallowing. Undifferentiated carcinoma can present the above symptoms in a short period of time.
Late stage can produce hoarseness, breathing, swallowing difficulties and sympathetic nerve compression caused Horner syndrome and invasion of the cervical plexus, ear, pillow, shoulder pain and local lymph nodes and distant organ metastasis and other manifestations. Cervical lymph node metastasis occurs earlier in undifferentiated carcinoma.
Medullary cancer because the tumor itself can produce calcitonin and 5-hydroxytryptamine, which can cause diarrhea, palpitations, flushing and other symptoms.