Tumor of testis is one of the common tumors in urology. Testicular tumor is divided into primary and secondary, most of which are primary, and secondary is extremely rare. Testicular neoplasms are almost all malignant, among which germ cell neoplasms account for 90% ~ 95% and non-germ cell neoplasms account for 5% ~ 10%. Spermatogoniomas are the most common germ cell tumors, accounting for about 40% ~ 50% of primary testicular tumors, followed by embryonal carcinoma (about 20% ~ 30%), teratoma (about 10%), and other cell type testicular tumors are rare. There were three peaks in the age of onset: in infancy, yolk sac tumor (infantile embryonal tumor) was the most common; Various types of testicular tumors were seen between 20 and 40 years old, but most of them were spermatogoniomas, and most of them were spermatogoniomas after 70 years old. Its etiology is still unknown, and it is believed that the pathogenesis is related to both genetic and acquired factors. Cryptorchidism is the most closely related to cryptorchidism. The incidence of cryptorchidism is 10 to 14 times greater than that of normal people. Cryptorchidism is higher in the abdominal cavity than the groin.
The cause of
Its etiology is still unknown, and it is believed that the pathogenesis is related to both genetic and acquired factors. Among them, cryptorchidism is the most closely related to cryptorchidism. The incidence of tumor in cryptorchidism is 10 to 14 times greater than that in normal people, and cryptorchidism in the abdominal cavity is higher than that in the groin.
Testicular tumors are divided into germ cell tumors, non-germ cell tumors and testicular secondary tumors, among which germ cell tumors are the most common, accounting for 90% ~ 95%. Germ cell tumors are classified as seminoma (35%) and non-seminoma (embryonal carcinoma). Teratoma. Chorionic epithelial carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, etc.) and mixed germinoma. Non-germ cell tumors are divided into stromal cell tumors, supportive cell tumors, gonadal stromal tumors, and mixed tumors.
Clinical manifestations of
The most common symptom is a progressive, painless enlargement of the testicles with heaviness, swelling and hardening of the testicles. The enlarged testis of seminoma tend to maintain the contour and texture of the testis, while the teratoma presents nodular enlargement with inconsistency between soft and hard. About 10% of patients experience pain due to internal testicular hemorrhage or infarction, and 10% May experience metastatic symptoms, such as large retroperitoneal lymphatic metastasis and back pain due to compression of nerve roots. Lung metastasis may lead to cough and dyspnea, duodenal metastasis may lead to anorexia, nausea and vomiting, and bone metastasis may lead to bone pain. Testicular mesenchymal cytoma should be considered in children with testicular lumps associated with precocious puberty, or in adults with gynecomastia and decreased libido.