Congenital heart disease is the most common type of congenital malformation, accounting for about 28% of all congenital malformations. It refers to the abnormal anatomical structure caused by the formation disorder or abnormal development of heart and large blood vessels during the embryonic development period, or the failure to close the channel that should be closed automatically after birth (normal in the fetus). The incidence of congenital heart disease is not to be underestimated, accounting for 0.4% ~ 1% of life infants, which means that there are 150,000 ~ 200,000 new congenital heart disease patients in China every year. Congenital heart disease spectrum is particularly wide, including hundreds of specific types, some patients can be combined with a variety of deformities at the same time, symptoms vary widely, the lightest can be lifelong asymptomatic, severe symptoms such as hypoxia, shock and even death. According to pathological physiological changes, the hemodynamics of congenital heart disease can be classified as cyanosis or non cyanosis, can also according to the presence of shunt is divided into three categories: no shunt type, such as the stenosis of pulmonary artery, the aorta, left to right shunt (such as, ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defects (arterial catheter is not closed) and right to left shunt (such as rockwell quadruple dislocation, large blood vessels).
A small number of congenital heart diseases have a chance of self-healing before the age of 5. In addition, a small number of patients have mild deformity with no obvious impact on circulatory function, without any treatment, but most patients need surgical treatment to correct the deformity. With the rapid development of medical technology, the effect of surgery has been greatly improved. At present, if timely surgical treatment is given to most patients, they can return to normal as normal people, their growth and development will not be affected, and they can meet the needs of ordinary work, study and life.
The cause of
Generally considered early pregnancy (5 to 8 weeks) is the most important period in fetal heart development, causes a lot of congenital heart disease, genetic factors accounted for only about 8%, while 92% of the most factor for the environment, such as women take drugs during pregnancy, infection, such as environmental pollution, radiation can make abnormal fetal heart development. In particular, rubella virus infection in the first trimester of pregnancy sharply increases the risk of congenital heart disease in children.
Clinical manifestations of
There are many types of congenital heart disease and its clinical manifestations mainly depend on the size and complexity of the deformity. Complex and severe deformities can cause severe symptoms, even life-threatening, shortly after birth. It should be noted that some simple deformities, such as ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus, may have no obvious symptoms in the early stage, but the disease will still potentially develop and worsen, requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment to avoid losing the opportunity of surgery. The main symptoms are:
1. Frequent colds and repeated respiratory tract infections, prone to pneumonia.
2. Poor growth and development, thin and sweaty.
3 suck milk when impotent, nursing difficulties, or the baby refused to eat, cough, usually short of breath.
4. Children complain of fatigue and poor physical strength.
5. Bluish lips and nails, or bluish after crying or moving, and clubbing fingers.
6. Like squatting, fainting and hemoptysis.
A murmur was found on auscultation.