Penile carcinoma is a malignant tumor originated from the head of the penis, the coronal sulcus and the mucosa of the inner plate of the prepuce as well as the skin of the penis. Penile cancer is the most common malignant tumor, accounting for more than 90% of penile tumors. The most common pathology type is squamous cell carcinoma of the penis, accounting for about 95% of penile cancer. As a result, penile cancer has become almost synonymous with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis, leading to the neglect of other types of penile cancer. According to the histological classification of malignant epithelial malignancies of the penis in 2004, the pathological types of penile carcinoma were divided into penile squamous cell carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma, sebaceous adenocarcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. Bowen's disease and Paget's disease of the penis will be attributed to precancerous lesions, in fact, these two diseases also belong to a special type of penile cancer. Before the 1950s, penile cancer was one of the most common malignant tumors in the male urinary and reproductive system in China. With the continuous improvement of people's health conditions, the incidence of penile cancer decreased rapidly, especially after the reform and opening up, and penile cancer has become a rare tumor.
The cause of
The exact pathogeny of penile cancer still is not clear up to now, it is with phimosis and wrapping grow too close relationship commonly accepted, wrapping dirty and chronic inflammation stimulation are the main reason of penile cancer. A large number of studies have shown that circumcision in infancy prevents penile cancer, while circumcision in childhood or adulthood does not reduce penile cancer. Therefore, patients with phimosis should be operated on as soon as possible. And to wrapping too long person to maintain the cleanness of prepuce local is the most important, also can reduce the incidence of a disease of penile cancer. Nowadays, most of the patients with penile cancer clinically have phimosis. In addition, penile cancer related causes also include penile sclerosis mosses, warts, condyloma, human papillomavirus infection and incomplete circumcision, therefore, patients with the above diseases should also be treated as soon as possible.
Clinical manifestations of
Penile cancer often begins from the mucosa on the board inside phallus head, coronal groove and wrapping, the patient pathological change that has phimosis is inchoate be discovered not easily, can touch prepuce to have nodule or bump inside, and increase gradually, can wear break prepuce to reveal cancerous swollen. The foreskin often has purulent or bloody discharge from the mouth. Foreskin can be everted can reveal the patient of phallic head shows for the disease change place appears papule, tit shape or flat protuberant, wart or cauliflower shape plaque, ulcer, pathological change increases gradually, the surface often has fetid secretion. Penile cancer rarely occurs in the body of the penis. Because of the concomitant infection, penile cancer patients are often accompanied by unilateral or bilateral inguinal lymph node enlargement, and about 50% of patients with enlarged lymph nodes are pathologically confirmed as lymph node metastasis.
Typical penile cancer patients, through clinical examination, the diagnosis is not difficult. The diagnosis of the disease requires pathological examination of the affected tissue. Microscopically, the most common are keratinic and moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinomas. Among the squamous cell carcinoma of the penis, there are 7 subtypes of basal cell carcinoma, condyloma carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma, mixed carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma. Other types of penile cancer are rare.