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Cancer of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction

Esophageal cancer is a common cancer of the digestive tract and kills about 300,000 people worldwide each year. Morbidity and mortality rates vary widely from country to country. China is one of the areas with high incidence of esophageal cancer in the world. Male is more than female, the age of onset is more than 40 years old. The typical symptoms of esophageal cancer are progressive dysphagia, with difficulty swallowing dry food, then semi-liquid food, and finally water and saliva.

The distribution of the population of esophageal cancer is related to age, gender, occupation, race, region, living environment, dietary habits, genetic susceptibility and so on. According to the investigation data, esophageal cancer may be caused by many factors. The proposed etiology is as follows:
1. Chemical etiology
Nitrosamines. These compounds and their precursors are widely distributed, can be formed in vitro and in vivo, and are highly carcinogenic. In the high incidence area of diet, drinking water, pickled cabbage, and even in the patient's saliva, the measurement of nitrite content are far from the low incidence area is high.

2. Biological etiology
Fungus. A variety of fungi can be isolated from grains in some high incidence areas, upper digestive tract of patients with esophageal cancer or resected esophageal cancer specimens, and some of them are carcinogenic. Some fungi can promote the formation of nitrosamines and their precursors, and even promote the occurrence of cancer.

Lack of certain trace elements
Molybdenum, iron, zinc, fluorine and selenium are low in grain, vegetable and drinking water.

Vitamin deficiencies
Lack of vitamin A, vitamin B2, vitamin C and animal protein, fresh vegetables, fruit intake is A common feature of high incidence of esophageal cancer.

5. Smoke, wine, hot food, hot drinks, oral unclean and other factors
Long-term drinking alcohol, smoking habits, food too hard, too hot, eating too fast, cause chronic irritation, inflammation, trauma or oral unclean, dental caries, and so may be associated with the occurrence of esophageal cancer.

Genetic predisposition to esophageal cancer.



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