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Thrombotic and embolic diseases

Thrombosis and thromboembolism are diseases caused by two pathological processes, which are clinically known as thrombotic diseases. Thrombotic disease is a serious threat to human life and health. The incidence of thrombotic disease is the highest among all kinds of diseases, and has been increasing in recent years.

An overview of the
Thrombosis is a pathological process in which the tangible components of blood form emboli in blood vessels (mostly small blood vessels) under certain conditions, causing partial or complete blockage of blood vessels and blood supply disorders in corresponding parts. Components of thrombus can be divided into platelet thrombus, erythrocyte thrombus, fibrin thrombus, mixed thrombus, etc. According to the type of blood vessels can be divided into arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and capillary thrombosis. [1]
Thromboembolism is the pathological process in which the thromboembolism is exfoliated from the forming site and partially or completely blocks certain blood vessels in the process of moving with the blood flow, causing ischemia, hypoxia, necrosis (arterial thrombosis) and congestion and edema (venous thrombosis) of the corresponding tissues and/or organs.
The diseases caused by the above two pathological processes are called thrombotic diseases in medicine.

Clinical manifestations of
First, venous thrombosis of the lower extremity deep vein thrombosis is the most common
It is common in deep veins such as popliteal vein, femoral vein, mesenteric vein and portal vein. It is erythrocyte thrombus or fibrous protein thrombus more. The main performances are:
Local swelling and pain of thrombosis;
(2) thrombosis distal blood reflux disorders: such as distal edema, swelling pain, skin color change, ascites, etc.;
(3) thromboembolism caused by vascular dysfunction, such as pulmonary infarction symptoms, signs and so on.

Second, arterial thrombosis is more common in coronary arteries, cerebral arteries, mesenteric arteries and limb arteries, etc., the early thrombosis type is mostly platelet thrombosis, followed by fibrin thrombosis. Clinical manifestations include:
(1) come on more suddenly, can have local severe pain, such as angina, abdominal pain, limb pain and so on;
(2) related blood supply site tissue ischemia, hypoxia caused by organ, tissue structure and function abnormalities, such as myocardial infarction, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, arrhythmia, consciousness disorders and hemiplegia;
(3) thrombosis caused by cerebral embolism, renal embolism, splenic embolism and other related symptoms and signs;
(4) the clinical manifestations caused by ischemic necrosis of the blood supply tissue, such as fever.

Iii. Capillary thrombosis is common in DIC, TTP and HUS
Clinical manifestations are often lack of specificity, mainly skin and mucosa embolic necrosis, microcirculation failure and organ dysfunction.



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