The pathological dilation of the aorta, which exceeds 50% of the normal vessel diameter, is called an aortic aneurysm. Aortic aneurysm can be classified into true aortic aneurysm and false aortic aneurysm. A true aneurysm is a 3-layer structure in which the blood vessel widens and involves the blood vessel wall. A pseudoaneurysm is a localized rupture of an artery caused by a clot or occlusion of adjacent tissue.
The cause of
It can be caused by atherosclerosis, cystic necrosis in the middle layer of blood vessels, syphilis infection, bacterial infection, rheumatic aortitis and trauma. One of the most common diseases is atherosclerosis.
1. According to morphology, it can be divided into three types:
(1) shuttle shape;
2. It can be divided into:
(1) ascending aortic aneurysm including valsalva sinus tumor;
(2) aortic arch aneurysm;
(3) descending aortic aneurysm, between the left subclavian bone and the diaphragm, is collectively referred to as thoracic aortic aneurysm;
(4) abdominal aortic aneurysm, the most common.
Clinical manifestations of
Symptoms of 1.
Generally, pain occurs when the aneurysm gradually increases, and the nature is like deep drilling. The thoracic aortic aneurysm is mostly located in the upper chest or back, and the left shoulder, neck and upper limb radiated under the shoulder blade. Abdominal aortic aneurysm complained of lower back pain. If pain intensity increase could herald a ready to pop, oppression neighboring tissues as vena cava, pulmonary artery, the trachea and bronchus, lung and left laryngeal recurrent nerve, esophagus, can lead to superior vena cava syndrome, dyspnea, cough, wheezing, even secondary infection, haemoptysis, hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, hematemesis, descending aortic aneurysm can invade vertebral body, compression of spinal cord caused paraplegia.
2. The signs
Aortic arch aneurysms can touch abnormal pulsation in the superior sternal fossa, and thoracic aorta can touch a malleable mass in the left midline of the abdomen, with obvious pulsation. Systolic murmurs can be heard in the tumor body. For example, arch aneurysm affects the aortic root and causes aortic valve insufficiency, and auscultation of aortic valve area can detect diastolic murmurs. Edema of the face, neck and upper extremity may occur if the superior vena cava is compressed.